Elinor Mills wrote an article titled Firefox, Adobe top buggiest-software list. In it, she quotes Qualys as providing vulnerability statistics for Mozilla, Adobe and others. Qualys states:
The number of vulnerabilities in Adobe programs rose from 14 last year to 45 this year, while those in Microsoft software dropped from 44 to 41, according to Qualys. Internet Explorer, Windows Media Player and Microsoft Office together had 30 vulnerabilities.
This caught my attention immediately, as I know I have mangled more than 45 Adobe entries this year.
First, the “number of vulnerabilities” game will always have wiggle room, which has been discussed before. A big factor for statistic discrepancy when using public databases is the level of abstraction. CVE tends to bunch up vulnerabilities in a single CVE, where OSVDB tends to break them out. Over the past year, X-Force and BID have started abstracting more and more as well.
Either way, Qualys cited their source, NVD, which is entirely based on CVE. How they got 45 vulns in “Adobe programs” baffles me. My count says 97 Adobe vulns, 95 of them have CVEs assigned to them (covered by a total of 93 CVEs). OSVDB abstracted the entries like CVE did for the most part, but split out CVE-2009-1872 as distinct XSS vulnerabilities. OSVDB also has two entries that do not have CVE, 55820 and 56281.
Where did Qualys get 45 if they are using the same CVE data set OSVDB does? This discrepancy has nothing to do with abstraction, so something else appears to be going on. Doing a few more searches, I believe I figured it out. Searching OSVDB for “Adobe Reader” in 2009 yields 44 entries, one off from their cited 45. That could be easily explained as OSVDB also has 9 “Adobe Multiple Products” entries that could cover Reader as well. This may in turn be a breakdown where Qualys or Mills did not specify “Adobe Software” (cumulative, all software they release) versus “Adobe Reader” or some other specific software they release.
Qualys tallied 102 vulnerabilities that were found in Firefox this year, up from 90 last year.
What is certainly a discrepancy due to abstraction, OSVDB has 74 vulnerabilities specific to Mozilla Firefox (two without CVE), 11 for “Mozilla Multiple Browsers” (Firefox, Seamonkey, etc) and 81 for “Mozilla Multiple Products” (Firefox, Thunderbird, etc). While my numbers are somewhat anecdotal, because I cannot remember every single entry, I can say that most of the ‘multiple’ vulnerabilities include Firefox. That means OSVDB tracked as many as, but possibly less than, 166 vulnerabilities in Firefox.
Microsoft software dropped from 44 to 41, according to Qualys. Internet Explorer, Windows Media Player and Microsoft Office together had 30 vulnerabilities.
According to my searches on OSVDB, we get the following numbers:
- 234 vulnerabilities in Microsoft, only 4 without CVE
- 50 vulnerabilities in MSIE, all with CVE
- 4 vulnerabilities in Windows Media Player, 1 without CVE
- 52 vulnerabilities in Office, all with CVE. (based on “Office” being Excel, Powerpoint, Word and Outlook.
- 92 vulnerabilities in Windows, only 2 without CVE
When dealing with vulnerability numbers and statistics, like anything else, it’s all about qualifying your numbers. Saying “Adobe Software” is different than “Adobe Acrobat” or “Adobe Reader” as the software installation base is drastically different. Given the different levels of abstraction in VDBs, it is also equally important to qualify what “a vulnerability” (singular) is. Where CVE/NVD will group several vulnerabilities in one identifier, other databases may abstract and assign unique identifiers to each distinct vulnerability.
Qualys, since you provided the stats to CNet, could you clarify?
This blog entry is probably worth many pages of ranting, examining and dissecting the anatomy of a 0-day panic and the resulting fallout. Since this tends to happen more often than some of us care to stomach, I’ll touch on the major points and be liberal in pointing fingers. If you receive the “wag of my finger“, stop being part of the problem and wise up.
I blinked and missed someone disclosing that there was a dreaded 0-day vulnerability in Adobe Flash Player and that it was a big threat. Apparently Symantec noticed that evil Chinese sites were exploiting Flash and the current 184.108.40.206 could be successfully exploited. When pressed for details, Symantec backtracked and said that they were wrong and it appeared to be the same exploit as previously disclosed by Mark Dowd (CVE-2007-0071). Bad Symantec, poor research.
To make matters worse, Symantec then further claimed that even though it was an old issue, the “in-the-wild exploit was effective against stand-alone versions of Flash Player 220.127.116.11” and that not all versions had been patched correctly. Way to save face Ben Greenbaum of Symantec!! Oh wait, today he changed his mind and said that Symantec’s claims were based on erroneous conclusions and that the behavior of Flash on Linux they were observing was indeed intended by Adobe and not proof it was vulnerable. To make matters worse, Symantec researchers downloaded the “latest” Flash and found it “vulnerable”, which lead to their sky-is-falling panic. Shortly after, they realized that they didn’t download all of the security patches and had been exploiting a known vulnerable version of Flash. Oops?
Two rounds of hype-driven 0-day threat warnings, and no real new threat. Whew, hopefully Symantec raised their THREATCON to blood red or whatever is appropriate for such 0-day threats. You do monitor that don’t you?
This fiasco lead many news outlets and vendors to issue warnings about the new 0-day threat. Secunia, SecurityFocus/BID, SecurityTracker, CERT, and FrSIRT all released new warnings and created entries in their respective databases as a result. In the VDB world, this is a royal pain-in-the-ass to deal with. Secunia ‘revoked’ their entry, BID ‘retired’ their entry, SecurityTracker flaged theirs ‘duplicate entry’, FrSIRT ‘revoked’ their entry and CERT still has it listed.
Fortunately for OSVDB, we were a few hours behind the rest and noticed the discrepancies and waited for more information. Unfortunately, the rest of the world, including ALL of the VDBs and news outlets listed above (and others) failed miserably in using common sense and a government funded resource to better prevent this kind of problem. As of this posting, Secunia, BID, SecurityTracker, FrSIRT, CERT, Dancho, ComputerWorld and eWeek still don’t link to the CVE ID for the vulnerability. Only Adobe’s updated blog entry actually references CVE-2007-0071 (but doesn’t link to it). Secunia links to a previous ID that has seven CVEs associated with it. The original CVE was assigned 2007-01-04 and published around 2008-04-08, a month and a half prior to this mess.
VDBs, shame on you for adding to the confusion. Symantec, shame on you for crying 0-day when your own engineers screwed up badly. Shame on everyone for not clearing it up fully by linking to the correct CVE entry or their own previous entries.
Before any of you receiving a “wave of the finger” bitch, consider the real world impact of your actions. In this case, only 12 MILLION people ended up seeing a vague warning when they loaded their favorite game. Blizzard included the correct fix information which was the same as a month or more before, but the sudden ‘security alert’ (that is extremely rare) only prompted their customers to wonder, possibly panic and definitely kill some demons as a result.
Steven Christey of CVE recently commented on the fact that Microsoft, Adobe, Cisco, Sun and HP all released multi-issue advisories on the same day (Feb 13). My first reaction was to come up with an amusing graphic depicting this perfect storm. Due to not having any graphic editing skills and too much cynicism, I now wonder if these are the same vendors that continually bitch about irresponsible disclosure and it “hurting their customers”?
These same customers are now being subjected to patches for at least five major vendors on the same day. In some IT shops, this is devastating and difficult to manage and recover from. If a single patch has problems it forces the entire upgrade schedule to come to a halt until the problem can be resolved. If these vendors cared for their customers like they pretend to when someone releases a critical issue w/o vendor coordination, then they would consider staggering the patches to help alleviate the burden it causes on their beloved customers.